Women are friendly. But men are more competitive. Why? Researchers have found it's all down to the hormone oxytocin (荷尔蒙催生素). Although known as the love hormone, it affects the sexes differently.
“Women tend to be social in their behavior. They often share with others. But men tend to be competitive. They are trying to improve their social status,” said Professor Ryan.
Generally, people believe that the hormone oxytocin is let out in our body in various social situations and our body creates a large amount of it during positive social interactions (互动) such as falling in love or giving birth.
But in a former experiment Professor Ryan found that the hormone is also let out in our body during negative social interactions such as envy.
Further researches showed that in men the hormone oxytocin improves the ability to recognize competitive relationships, but in women it raises the ability to recognize friendship.
Professor Ryan’s recent experiment used 62 men and women aged 20 to 37.
Half of the participants（参与者）received oxytocin. The other half received placebo (安慰剂).
After a week, the two groups switched with participants. They went through the same procedure with the other material.
Following each treatment, they were shown some video pictures with different social interactions. Then they were asked to analyze the relationships by answering some questions. The questions were about telling friendship from competition. And their answers should be based on gestures, body language and facial expressions.
The results indicated that, after treatment with oxytocin, men’s ability to correctly recognize competitive relationships improved, but in women it was the ability to correctly recognize friendship that got better.
Professor Ryan thus concluded: “Our experiment proves that the hormone oxytocin can raise people’s abilities to better distinguish many kinds of social interactions. And the behavior differences between men and women are caused by biological factors (因素) that are mainly hormonal.”
1.What causes men and women to behave differently according to the text?
A. Placebo. B. Oxytocin.
C. The gesture. D. The social status.
2.What can we learn from Professor Ryan's former experiment?
A. Oxytocin affects our behavior in a different way.
B. Our body lets out oxytocin when we are deep in love.
C. Our body produces oxytocin when we feel unhappy about others’ success.
D. Oxytocin improves our abilities to understand people's behavior differences.
3.Why did Professor Ryan conduct the recent experiment?
A. To test the effect of oxytocin on the ability to recognize social interactions.
B. To know the differences between friendship and competition.
C. To know people’s different abilities to answer questions.
D. To test people’s understanding of body language.
4.The underlined word “distinguish” has the closest meaning to ______.
A.accept B.discover C.differ D.explore
5.The author develops the text by______.
A. explaining people’s behaviors
B. describing his own experiences
C. distinguishing sexual differences
D. discussing research experiments
China’s new buzzword, tuhao, may be in next year’s Oxford English Dictionary.
“If its influence continues, it is very likely to appear on our updated list of words, ” said Julie Kleeman, project manager with the editing team.
In Chinese, tu means uncouth(粗野的) and hao means rich. It has traditionally been referred to rich people who throw their weight around in China’s rural areas. In recent years, people borrowed the term to describe those who spend money in an unreasonable manner. The word gained acceptance in September with the launch(上市) of Apple’s new gold-colored iPhone, an item loved by China’s rich people. The color became known as “tuhao gold”. The word is now often used by the online community to refer to people who have the cash but lack the class to go with it.
Kleeman also mentioned two other Chinese words—dama and hukou—which may also be taken in the dictionary. Hukou means household registration(登记) in Chinese and has been widely used.
Dama, meaning middle-aged women, was first used in the Western media by the Wall Street Journal in May when thousands of Chinese women were buying up record number of gold. They were the driving force in the global gold market between April and June when the gold prices had gone down.
“We have nearly 120 Chinese-linked words now in Oxford English Dictionary, ” she said. Some of them are: Guanxi, literally meaning “connection”, is the system of social networks and influential relationships which promote business and other dealings. Taikonaut is a mix of taikong, meaning outer space, and astronaut.
The new words will be first uploaded on the official website before the dictionaries arrive. The online version is also renewed every three months. “It at least broke our old rules. It used to take 10 years to include a new word but now we keep the pace with the era, ” according to John Simpson.
1. What does “Tuhao” mean now?
A. The rich who like iPhone made of gold.
B. The people who have power in the countryside.
C. The people who spend money reasonably.
D. The rich who find no class to belong to.
2.Why is the word “Dama” popular now?
A. They bought gold in the global market.
B. They are wealthy middle-aged women.
C. They brought the gold prices down.
D. They worked on the Wall Street.
3. According to John, the Oxford English Dictionary__________.
A. updates its new version every three months
B. takes 10 years to include a new word now
C. speeds up its acceptance of new words
D. has its online version to collect new words
I was never very neat, while my roommate Kate was extremely organized. Each of her objects had its place, but mine always hid somewhere. She even labeled (贴标签 ) everything. I always, looked for everything. Over time, Kate got neater and I got messier. She would push my dirty clothing over, and I would lay my books on her tidy desk. We both got tired of each other.
War broke out one evening. Kate came into the room. ,Soon, I heard her screaming, "Take your shoes away! Why under my bed!" Deafened, I saw my shoes flying at me. I jumped to my feet and started yelling. She yelled back louder.
The room was filled with anger. We could not have stayed together for a single minute but for a phone call. Kate answered it. From her end of the conversation, I could tell right away her grandma was seriously ill. When she hung up, she quickly crawled (爬 ) under her covers, weeping.
Obviously, that was something she should not go through phone. All of a sudden ,a warm feeling of sympathy rose up in my heart,
Slowly, I collected the pencils, took back the books, made my bed, cleaned the socks and swept the floor, even on her side. I got so into my work that I even didn't noticed Kate had sat up.
She was watching, her tears dried and her expression one of disbelief. Then, she reached out her hands to grasp mine. I looked up into her eyes. She smiled at me. "Thanks."
Kate and I stayed roommates for the rest of the year. We didn't always agree, but we learned the key to living together: giving in, cleaning up and holding on.
1.What made Kate angry one evening?
A. She couldn't find her books.
B. She heard the author shouting loud.
C. She got the news that her grandma was ill.
D. She saw the author's shoes beneath her bed.
2. The author tidied up the room most probably because___.
A. she was scared by Kate's anger
B. she hated herself for being so messy
C. she wanted to show her care
D. she was asked by Kate to do so
3.What might be the best title for the story?
A. My Friend Kate B. Hard Work Pays Off
C. How to Be Organized D. Learning to Be Roommates
We live in a fast-paced and anxiety-filled world that oftentimes seems to shift beneath our feet. Thus we are sometimes affected by fears or anxiety impacting our life. For as long as I could remember I had struggled with anxiety. After I left university, I made friends with a Moroccan woman at work. One day she invited me to_________her and her family back home. I wanted to, but I would have to travel there _________ and I knew we would be in a very rural area. How would I cope with my _________ ?
Then one day it _________ to me that I had a life to live. I could choose to let anxiety _________ me or I could go to Morocco and _________ something different. I was 23 years old and had never been out of the UK alone. The journey to Morocco _________ something inside me. I managed to cope with my anxiety. The sense of _________ was overwhelming（势不可挡的） and still to this day when I get afraid of going somewhere alone, I remember how_________it felt when I arrived in Morocco.
Upon arrival I was so _________ for the generous welcome I received. My friend’s family had arranged a welcome party. The people were so loving toward me. As a moment of _________ felt in a faraway village, this reminded me that I was “good enough”, which helped to_________ my anxiety.
Waking up the next day, in the morning light, I saw the area where we were. I was _________ by how rural it was – and the realization that these people had very few _________ .
In the days afterwards, I traveled around Morocco. We went to Marrakesh and _________ the Atlas mountains. We had the most amazing food – lots of fresh fruits and vegetables.
At the end of my _________something inside me had changed. I realized I had not felt anxious for nearly two weeks.
Experiencing a different culture far away from home helped me to realize what is important in life, what really _________, and with that my anxiety _________. When I returned home I was much more active in _________ my anxiety. Working with people, helping them_________ their anxiety, is how I can share the love I found in Morocco.
1.A. send B. help C. call D. visit
2.A. alone B. soon C. free D. safe
3.A. work B. curiosity C. homesickness D. worries
4.A. appeared B. hit C. struck D. occurred
5.A. impress B. control C. reach D. persuade
6.A. enjoy B. experience C. take D. experiment
7.A. changed B. moved C. supported D. impressed
8.A. achievement B. fear C. disappointment D. embarrassment
9.A. good B. ashamed C. afraid D. proud
10.A. sorry B. confused C. confident D. thankful
11.A. doubt B. luck C. love D. surprise
12.A. improve B. hold C. protect D. reduce
13.A. inspired B. moved C. pleased D. shocked
14.A. lands B. difficulties C. resources D. friends
15.A. discovered B. explored C. examined D. recognized
16.A. opportunity B. rush C. stay D. life
17.A. rules B. exists C. matters D. hurts
18.A. disappeared B. expanded C. remained D. removed
19.A. expressing B. challenging C. forgetting D. remembering
20.A. drop B. notice C. pass D. overcome
He seems to be giving the impression that he didn’t enjoy himself in Paris. ______, he has a wonderful time.
A. Above all B. What’s more
C. As a result D. On the contrary
Learn to ______ your knowledge with your experience, and you are sure to succeed.
A.join B. unit C. connect D. combine