满分5 > 初中英语试题【答案带解析】

__What’s the matter? —I’m having trouble...

__What’s the matter?           —I’m having trouble_____ who has taken my book.

A. looking after    B. looking for    C. looking up    D. looking out

 

B 【解析】句意:——怎么回事呢?——我在费劲地查找是谁拿走了我的书。考查动词短语辨析。have trouble in doing sth. 做某事费劲。A. looking after在照顾;B. looking for在寻找;C. looking up在仰望;D. looking out在留意。根据句意和语境,可知选B。  
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考点分析:
考点1:动词和动词短语
就是表示动作和状态的词。根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词、系动词、助动词、情态动词。
动词分类及用法
一、实义动词
        实义动词又叫行为动词,分成及物动词和不及物动词 。
1、及物动词是必须带宾语的动词,可分为如下两类。 1) 及物动词+宾语例:I love my home. 我爱我家。 He bought an English dictionary.  他买了一本英语词典。 2) 及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语例:She taught us maths. 她教我们数学。 My mother gave me a new pen.  母亲给了我一支新钢笔。提示:常用的能接双宾语的及物动词有:give, teach, buy, lend, find, hand, leave, sell, show, read, pay, make, offer, build, pass, bring, cook等。
2、 不及物动词不及物动词不需要跟宾语,本身意义完整。例:She came last week. 她上周来的。 It is raining hard.  正下着大雨。 Class began at half past seven.  7点半开始上课。 What happened yesterday? 昨天发生了什么事?
3、同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如:She can dance and sing.   她能唱歌又能跳舞。(sing在此用作不及物动词。)   She can sing many English songs.   她能唱好多首英文歌曲。(sing用作及物动词。)
二、系动词
        系动词不能单独作谓语,后面必须跟表语构成合成式谓语。表语通常由名词、形容词,或相当于名词或形容词的词或短语等充当,说明主语是什么或怎么样。连系动词有 be, seem, look, become, get, grow, feel, appear, remain, turn。
        例如:   The story sounds true.   Those oranges taste good.
三、助动词
        协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词。 助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,只能在实义动词和系动词前构成谓语的时态、语态以及否定式和疑问式。它没有对应的汉译,例如: He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。 (doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义) He is singing. 他在唱歌。(is是助动词,无词义,构成现在进行时)
四、情态动词
        情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人对有关行为或事物的态度和看法,认为其可能、应该或必要等,不能单独作谓语,情态动词后面加动词原形。情态动词无人称和数的变化, 情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 "not"。常用的情态动词有 :
Can(could) (能,会) 如:I can swim. 我会游泳。   
May(might) (可以) 如: You may go now. 你现在可以走了。  
Must (必须) 如:You must do your homework. 你必须写作业。   
Need (需要) 如:He needs our help. 他需要我们的帮助。
注意:1、情态动词表推测在肯定句中一般用must (一定),can, could(可能),might /may(也许,或许)。否定句中用can’t / couldn’t(不可能)。例如:
It can’t be the headmaster. He has gone to America.  这不可能是校长,他去美国了。
2、can和could表示允许的用法:表示现在的允许时,若是请求别人允许自己做某事,两者均可用,但用could 语气更委婉;若是自己允许别人做某事,一般只用 can,而不用 could。如:   Can [Could] I come in? 我可以进来吗?
3、must和have to的用法   表示必须、必要。(must表示主观多一些而have to则表示客观多一些)如:   You must come in time.   你必须及时过来。   
回答must引出的问句时,如果是否定的回答,不能用mustn't,而要用needn't或don't have to。   — Must we hand in our exercise books today?   — Yes, you must. (No, you don’t have to.)   —我们今天必须交上练习册吗?   —是的。(不,不必。)
4、need表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词时,仅用于否定句或疑问句中,后跟动词原形。Need还常用作实义动词,有时态、人称和数的变化,后面通常接名词、代词和带to的不定式,
Do you need a dictionary?   你需要词典吗?
You  needn't give it back before Friday. 你不必在星期五前还我。
常见考法
        对于动词的考查,通常会在单选,词语运用和完形填空中出现。除了考查时态和语态外,只要考查实义动词的固定短语,系动词和情态动词的灵活运用。
典型例题:--Must I return the magazine to you right  now,Sandy/
          --No,you        .you may keep it until next Wednesday.
        A.  needn't   B.  can't    C. must    D. may
解析:本题考查情态动词must构成的疑问句的回答方式。否定回答应该用 needn't 。
答案:A
误区提醒
        汉语和英语的动词有较大差异,而学习者在学习是往往容易套用汉语,从而混淆意思相近而用法不同的词或词组,也容易混淆词形相近而意思不同的词或词组,例如look for和find, listen和 hear。所以我们在学习中要认真分析不同的词或词组。
典型例题:They had to ___the 800--meter race because of the bad weather.
          A  put on   B put off    C  get on   D  get up
解析:本题考查四个动词短语的区别。put on “穿上,戴上”; put off“推迟”; get on “上车”; get up“起床”。根据语境,应选put off。
答案:B
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