相关试题
当前位置:首页 > 高中英语试题 > 社会现象类阅读
题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behavior are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive. 

Social scientists are of course extremely interested in these types of questions. They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behavior. There are no clear answers yet, but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from each other, and there is a great deal of debate between proponents of each theory. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature and nurture”.

    Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory. Taken to an extreme,this theory states that our behavior is predetermined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts(本能).

    Proponents of the “nurture” theory, or, as they are often called, behaviorists, claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist, B. F. Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. The behaviorists' view of the human being is quite mechanistic. They state that, like machines, humans respond to environmental stimuli (刺激) as the basis of their behavior. 

Socially and politically, the consequences of these two theories are far-reaching. In the US,for example, blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature” proponents to conclude that blacks are genetically lower in status than whites. Behaviorists, on the contrary, say that the differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often robbed of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy, and that, as a result, they do not develop the same responses that whites do.

    Neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior. In fact, it is quite likely that the key to our behavior lies somewhere between these two extremes and that the controversy will continue for a long time is certain. 

1.This passage is mainly concerned with ________.

A. relation between personality and behavior

B. relation between behavior and environment

C. different accounts of patterns of human behavior

D. different theories of the formation of human behavior 

2.The underlined word “proponents” in Paragraph 2 means ________.

A. creators                 B. advisors                

C. advocates    D. judges 

3.In Paragraph 5, the author mainly writes about ________.

A. the considerable influence of the two theories

B. differences between the blacks and whites

C. racial discrimination in the United States

D. different responds to intelligence tests 

4.What's the author's purpose in writing the passage?

A. To call our attention to the changes of human behavior.

B. To urge scientists to do more research in social science.

C. To give us a detailed explanation of human behavior.

D. To present an argument in the field of social science.

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

You are watching a film in which two men are having a fight. They hit one another hard. At the start they only fight with their fists. But soon they begin hitting one another over the heads with chairs. And so it goes on until one of the men crashes (撞满分5(www.manfen5.com)--教育资源门户,提供试卷、教案、课件、论文、素材及各类教学资源下载,还有大量而丰富的教学相关资讯!击) through a wind and falls thirty feet to the ground below. He is dead!Of course he isn't really dead. With any luck he isn't even hurt. Why? Because the men who fall out of high windows or jump from fast moving trains, who crash cars or even catch fire, are professionals. They do this for a living. These men are called stuntmen. That is to say, they perform tricks. There are two sides to their work. They actually do most of the things you see on the screen. For example, they fall from a high building. However, they do not fall on to hard ground but on to empty cardboard boxes covered with a mattress (床垫). Again, when they hit one another with chairs, the chairs are made of soft wood and when they crash through windows, the glass is made of sugar! But although their work depends on trick of this sort, it also requires a high degree of skill and training. Often a stuntman' s success depends on careful timing. For exa满分5(www.manfen5.com)--教育资源门户,提供试卷、教案、课件、论文、素材及各类教学资源下载,还有大量而丰富的教学相关资讯!mple, when he is "blown up" in a battle scene, he has to jump out of the way of the explosion just at the right moment.

Naturally stuntmen are well paid for their work, but they lead dangerous lives. They often get seriously injured, and sometimes killed. A Norwegian stuntman, for example, skied over the edge of a cliff (悬崖) a thousand feet high. His parachute (降落伞) failed to open, and he was killed. In spite of all the risks, this is no longer a profession for men only. Men no longer dress up as women when actresses have to perform some dangerous action. For nowadays there are stuntgirls too.

1.Stuntmen are those who ______.

A. often dress up as actors                  

B. prefer to lead dangerous lives

C. often perform seemingly dangerous actions  

D. often fight each other for their lives

2.Stuntmen earn their living by ______.

A. playing their dirty tricks                

B. selling their special skills

C. jumping out of high windows           

D. jumping from fast moving trains

3.Which of the following is the main factor (因素) of a successful performance?

A. Strength.       B. Exactness.     

C. Speed.         D. Carefulness.

4.What can be inferred from the author' s example of the Norwegian stuntman?

A.Sometimes an accident can occur to a stuntman.

B The percentage of serious accidents is high.

C. Parachutes must be of good quality.

D. The cliff is too high.

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

Meeting people from another culture can be difficult. From the beginning, people may send the wrong signal(信号). Or they may pay no attention to signals from another person who is trying to develop a relationship.

Different cultures emphasize(强调)the importance of relationship building to a greater or lesser degree. For example, business in some countries is not possible until there is a relationship of trust. Even with people at work, it is necessary to spend a lot of time in "small talk", usually over a glass of tea, before they do any job.In many European countries -- like the UK or France -- people find it easier to build up a lasting working relationship at restaurants or cafes rather than at the office.

Talk and silence may also be different in some cultures. I once made a speech in Thailand.I had expected my speech to be a success and start a lively discussion; instead there was an uncomfortable silence. The people present just stared at me and smiled.After getting to know their ways better, I realized that they thought I was talking too much. In my own culture, we express meaning mainly through words, but people there sometimes feel too many words are unnecessary.

Even within Northern Europe, cultural differences can cause serious problems. Certainly, English and German cultures share similar values; however, Germans prefer to get down to business more quickly. We think that they are rude. In fact, this is just because one culture starts discussions and makes decisions more quickly.

People from different parts of the world have different values, and sometimes these values are quite against each other. However, if we can understand them better, a multicultural environment will offer a wonderful chance for us to learn from each other.

1.In some countries, eating together at restaurants may make it easier for people to _______.

A.develop closer relations         B.share the same culture

C.get to know each other           D.keep each other company

2.The author mentions his experience in Thailand to show that _______.

A.the English prefer to make long speeches

B.too many words are of no use

C.people from Thailand are quiet and shy by nature

D.even talk and silence can be culturally different

3.According to the text, how can people from different cultures understand each other better?

A.By sharing different ways of life.                    

B. By accepting different habits.

C.By recognizing different values.                 

D. By speaking each other' s languages.

4.What would be the best title for the text?

A.Multicultural Environment.                      

B.Cross-Cultural Differences.

C.How to Understand Each Other.                  

D.How to Build Up a Relationship.

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

  People believe that climbing can do good to health. Where can you learn the skill of climbing then? If you think that you have to go to the mountains to learn how to climb, youre wrong. Many Americans are learning to climb in city gyms(体育馆). Here, people are learning on special climbing

wall. The climbing wall goes straight up and has small holding places for hands and feet.

How do people climb the wall? To climb, you need special shoes and harness(保护带) around your chest to hold you. There are ropes(绳索)tied to your harness. The ropes hold you in place so that you dont fall. A beginners wall is usually about 15 feet high, and you climb straight up. There are small pieces of metal that stick out for you to stand on and hold on to. Sometimes its easy to see the new piece of metal. Sometimes, its not. The most difficult part is to control your fear. Its normal for humans to be afraid of falling, so its difficult not to feel fear. But when you move away from the wall, and the ropes hold you, and you begin to feel safe. You move slowly until you reach the top.

Climbing attracts people because its good exercise for almost everyone. You use your whole body, especially your arms and legs. This sport gives your body a complete workout. When you climb, both your mind and your body can become stronger.

1.The most difficult thing to do in wall climbing is _______.

A. to tie ropes to your shoes            B. to control your fear

C. to move away from the wall            D. to climb straight up

2.The word workout underlined in the last paragraph most probably means _________.

A. settlement           B. exercise      

C. excitement        D. tiredness

3. Why does the author write this passage?

A. To tell people where to find gyms.       

B. To prove the basic need for climbing

C. To encourage people to climb mountains.  

D. to introduce the sport of wall climbing

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

              In England, we look forward to our birthdays for 364 days a year!

We invite special people to celebrate it with us.

The Presents

Presents are opened as soon as the children are awake. They can’t wait for the birthday cake later in the day!

The Cards

Friends and family send birthday cards. Sending birthday cards is a custom (风俗) that began in England about 100 years ago.

The Party

The birthday child will have a party to which friends and family are invited. Visitors to the party bring presents for the birthday child. The children play games such as musical chairs and pass the parcel (包裹).

The Cake

The birthday cake is decorated on a theme (主题). A candle for each year is lit and placed on top and the child blows out the candles making a wish. We don’t put objects inside the cake as stated on many websites.

The Bumps (碰撞)

It used to be traditional for the birthday child to have the bumps. Friends would hold the child by the legs and under the arms and lift the child up and down bumping them gently on the ground. The number of bumps given is the age of the child plus one for extra good luck. As this can be dangerous, clapping (拍手) is often done instead.

The Sweets

Some children do take sweets to school to share with their classmates on their birthdays.

1. In England, the birthday present is opened _____.

A. before the child wakes up

B. immediately after the child wakes up

C. as soon as the child gets up

D. during the birthday party

2. If Alice is celebrating her 7th birthday, how many bumps will she be given?

A. Six.        B. Seven.      

C. Eight.       D. Nine.

3. Which of the following facts about birthdays in England is NOT true?

A. All the children will receive birthday cards on their birthdays.

B. Clapping is often done for the birthday child.

C. Objects meaning good luck are usually placed inside the birthday cake.

D. Nowadays children may share sweets with their classmates on their birthdays.

4. What would be the best title for this passage?

A. How birthdays are celebrated in the world

B. Where to hold an English birthday party

C. What to send when invited to a child’s birthday

D. How English children celebrate their birthdays

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

Millions of Americans return from long-distance trips by air, but their luggage doesn’t always come home with them. Airline identification tags(标签) can come loose, and the bags go who-knows-where. And passengers leave all kinds of things on planes.

The airlines collect the items and, for 90 days, attempt to find their owners. They don’t keep them, since they’re not in the warehouse business. And by law, they cannot sell the bags, because the airlines might be tempted to deliberately misplace luggage.

So once insurance companies have paid for lost bags and their contents, and they no longer belong to passengers, a unique store in the little town of Scottsboro, Alabama, buys them. The Unclaimed Baggage Center,” is so popular that the building, which is set up like a department store, is the number-one tourist attraction in all of Alabama. More than one million visitors stop in each year and take one of the store’s shopping carts on a hunt for treasures.

Each day, clerks bring out 7,000 new items, and veteran(老练的)shoppers rush to paw over them. You can find everything from precious jewels to hockey sticks, best-selling novels, leather jackets, tape recorders, surfboards, even half -used tubes of toothpaste.

The store’s own laundry washes or cleans all the clothes found in luggage, then sells them. The Unclaimed Baggage Center has found guns, illegal drugs and even a live rattlesnake.

The store has a little museum where some of its most unusual acquisitions(获得物) have been preserved. They include highland bagpipes, a burial mask from an Egyptian pharaoh's tomb, and a medieval suit of armor.

Statistics indicate that less than one-half of one percent of luggage checked on U.S. carriers is permanently lost and available to the store.

1. Paragraph1 shows that many passengers lose their luggage because______.

A. they are forgetful                                                                                                 

B. they are in a hurry

C. there is no lost and found office in many airports             

D. the owners of some luggage can’t be identified

2. The reason why the airlines cannot sell the bags is that ______.

A. they have to find the owners

B. they are likely to make a profit on the bags on purpose

C. some bags are expensive                                                                                   

D. they have to keep the bags as long as possible

3.The Unclaimed Baggage Center is very popular because______.

A. there's a large variety of goods.                                                       

B. all the things there are very cheap.

C. visitors may purchase something undervalued.

D. Visitors will enjoy some amusing activities there.

4.What can we infer from the passage?

A. A little museum will keep all the precious unclaimed baggage.

B. The percentage of passengers who lose their baggage for ever is small.

C. The things in the Unclaimed Baggage Center are articles for daily use.

D. People are not allowed to buy the illegal things in the store.

5.What is the main purpose of the passage?

A. To introduce how the unclaimed baggage in the airports is handled in America.

B. To introduce an attractive place to tourists.

C. To remind passengers of taking care of their baggage.

D. To advise the airlines to find the owners of the unclaimed baggage.

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

Meeting people from another culture can be difficult. From the beginning, people may send the wrong signal (信号). Or they may pay no attention to signals from another person who is trying to develop a relationship.

Different cultures emphasize (强调) the importance of relationship building to a greater or lesser degree. For example, business in some countries is not possible until there is a relationship of trust. Even with people at work, it is necessary to spend a lot of time in "small talk", usually over a glass of tea, before they do any job. In many European countries -- like the UK or France -- people find it easier to build up a lasting working relationship at restaurants or café’s rather than at the office.

Talk and silence may also be different in some cultures. I once made a speech in Thailand. I had expected my speech to be a success and start a lively discussion; instead there was an uncomfortable silence. The people present just stared at me and smiled. After getting to know their ways better, I realized that they thought I was talking too much. In my own culture, we express meaning mainly through words, but people there sometimes feel too many words are unnecessary.

Even within Northern Europe, cultural differences can cause serious problems. Certainly, English and German cultures share similar values; however, Germans prefer to get down to business more quickly. We think that they are rude. In fact, this is just because one culture starts discussions and makes decisions more quickly.

People from different parts of the world have different values, and sometimes these values are quite against each other. However, if we can understand them better, a multicultural environment (多元文化环境) will offer a wonderful chance for us to learn from each other.

1.In some countries, eating together at restaurants may make it easier for people to _______.

A. develop closer relations            B. share the same culture

C. get to know each other              D. keep each other company

2.The author mentions his experience in Thailand to show that _________.

A. the English prefer to make long speeches

B. too many words are of no use

C. people from Thailand are quiet and shy by nature

D. even talk and silence can be culturally different

3.According to the text, how can people from different cultures understand each other better?

A. By sharing different ways of life.

B. By accepting different habits.

C. By recognizing different values.

D. By speaking each other' s languages.

4.What would be the best title for the text?

A. Multicultural Environment.         B. Cross-Cultural Differences.

C. How to Understand Each Other.      D. How to Build Up a Relationship.

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

 Do you love holidays but hate the increase weight that follows? You are not alone.

Holidays are happy days with pleasure and delicious foods. Many people, however, are worried about the weight that comes along with these delicious foods.

With proper planning, though, it is possible to control your weight. The idea is to enjoy the holidays but not to eat too much. You don't have to turn away from the foods that you enjoy. The following suggestions may be of some help to you.

Do not miss meals. Before yon leave home for a feast(宴会),have a small, low-fat snack(小吃). This may help to keep you from getting too excited before delicious foods. Begin with clear soup and fruit or vegetables. A large glass of water before you eat may help you feel full. Use a small plate; a large plate will encourage you to have more than enough.

Better not have high-fat foods. Dishes that look oily or creamy have much fat in them.

Choose lean meat(瘦肉 ).Fill your plate with salad and green vegetables.

If you have a sweet tooth, try mints (薄荷) and fruits. They don’t have fat content as cream and chocolate.

Don’t let exercise take a break during the holidays. A 20-minute walk after a meal can help burn off excess(过多的) calories.

1.Holidays are happy days with pleasure but they may ______

A. bring weight problems             

B. bring you much trouble in your life

C. make you worried about your foods   

D. make you hate delicious foods

2. In order to really enjoy your holidays without putting on weight, you'd better__

A. drink much water and have vegetables only    

B. not eat the food in high fat

C. not accept invitations to feasts               

D. turn away from delicious foods

3.According to the passage, ___ is a necessary part to stop you from putting on weight.

A. physical exercise     B. water     

C. calories of energy    D. vegetables

4.Many people can't help putting on weight after the holidays because they _______ .

A. enjoy delicious food           

B. go to too many feasts

C. can't control themselves        

D. can't help turning away from the foods

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

Cold weather can be hard on pets, just like it can be hard on people. Sometimes owners forget that their cats are just as used to the warm shelter (住所) as they are. Some owners will leave their animals outside for a long period of time, thinking that all animals are used to living outdoors. This can put their pets in danger of serious illness. There are things you can do to keep your animal warm and safe.

 Keep your pets inside as much as you can when the weather is bad. If you have to take them out, stay outside with them. When you're cold enough to go inside, they probably are too. If you must leave them outside for a long time, make sure they have a warm, solid shelter against the wind, thick bedding, and plenty of non-frozen water.

  If they are left alone outside, dogs and cats can be very smart in their search for warm shelter. They can dig into snow banks or hide somewhere. Watch them closely when they are left outdoors, and provide them with shelter of good quality. Keep an eye on your pet's water. Sometimes owners don't realize that a water bowl has frozen and their pet can't get anything to drink. Animals that don't have clean and unfrozen water may drink dirty water outside, which may contain something unhealthy for them.

1. What do we learn about pets from Paragraph 1?

A. Thy are often forgotten by their owners     

B. They like to stay in warm places.

C. They build their own shelter.               

D. They are used to living outdoors.

2.. Why are pet owners asked to stay with their pets when they are out in cold weather?

A. To keep them company             

B. To keep them from eating bad food.

C. To know when to bring them inside  

D. To help them find shelters.

3. If pets are left on their own outdoors in cold weather, they may ________.

A. run short of clean water                   B. dig deep holes for fun

C. dirty the snow nearby                      D. get lost in the wild

4.What is the purpose of this text?

A. To give practical advice.                 

B. To solve a problem.

C. To tell an interesting story.               

D. To present a research result.

 

题型:阅读理解
难度:中等

India has many festivals, with some celebrations that last for weeks. However, none of them come even close to Holi, India’s most colorful and fun festival. Celebrated on the day following the full moon, this year’s festival happens to be on March 19th.

As with most Indian festivals, this one also has many different folk stories. Most of them center around the success of good over evil. The most popular one is about a king, who hates his son Prahlada for loving the creator of the Universe—Lord Vishnu. When every attempt to stop him fails, his sister, Holika believed to be immune(免疫的) to fire, joins in the effort by inviting the young boy to sit with her inside a huge fire. Helped by the power of Lord Vishnu, Prahlada escapes safely, while the evil Holika is burned to death. To remember this event, huge outdoor fires are lit in the night before Holi in order to clean the air of evil spirits and to celebrate the death of the evil.

So what’s so great about this day? While there are some fun parades(游行) and folk songs and dance performances, the most fun of all is walking to the streets and splashing(泼洒) people with water guns and dry colors and even covering them with entire buckets of colored water. On this day, everybody is fair game, no matter how old or how young.

At about midday, the splashing comes to an end and people living close to oceans or rivers usually take a bath in the water to clean themselves before going home to a delicious home-made big dinner and a well-deserved short sleep, following this full day of fun and activities.

1.Why does the king dislike his son Prahlada?

A. Because Prahlada doesn’t love him.

B. Because Prahlada is rude to Holika.

C. Because Prahlada loves Lord Vishnu.

D. Because Prahlada concentrates on his own success.

2.Prahlada gets out of danger __________.

A. with the help of Lord Vishnu

B. because of his good luck

C. by beating his aunt Holika

D. using his amazing talent

3.The underlined phrase “fair game” in Paragraph 3 refers to a person who __________.

A. fights against others fairly

B. enjoys splashing people

C. plays a trick on others

D. is the aim of splashing water

4.After the fun activities, people living close to oceans or rivers often take a bath because __________.

A. they have got dirty with dry colors and colored water

B. going home with colored water means bad luck

C. they believe clean water will bring good luck

D. taking a bath shows their true love for Lord Vishnu

 

Copyright @ 2008-2013 满分5 学习网 ManFen5.COM. All Rights Reserved.